- Began in 1950 -after the independence in the Indonesian National Revolution
- 1955 Bandung Conference – Indonesia’s first general and Constitutional Assembly elections, and an
- Period of political instability, with no cabinet lasting as long as two years.
- There is regional differences – customs, morals, tradition, religion
- Disunity – impact of Christianity and Marxism, Javanese political domination
- Poverty, low educational, and authoritarian traditions.
- Separatist movements opposed the Republic of Indonesia:
- Darul Islam – proclaimed an “Islamic State of Indonesia” – guerrilla war gainst the Republic in West Java from 1948 to 1962
- Maluku, Ambonese – proclaimed an independent Republic of South Maluku
- Sumatra and Sulawesi’s rebellion between 1955 and 1961.
- The economy was in a disastrous.
- Inexperienced government – unable to boost food production.
- Illiterate, unskilled, and suffered from a death.
- Inflation, smuggling
- Government much needed foreign exchange
- Plantations had been destroyed during the war.