20th Century – Liberal democracy period in Indonesia (1950–1957)

Introduction

  • Began in 1950 -after the independence in the Indonesian National Revolution
  • 1955 Bandung Conference – Indonesia’s first general and Constitutional Assembly elections, and an
  • Period of political instability, with no cabinet lasting as long as two years.

Post-independence struggles

  • There is regional differences – customs, morals, tradition, religion
  • Disunity – impact of Christianity and Marxism,  Javanese political domination
  • Poverty, low educational, and authoritarian traditions.
  • Separatist movements opposed the Republic of Indonesia:
    • Darul Islam – proclaimed an “Islamic State of Indonesia” – guerrilla war gainst the Republic in West Java from 1948 to 1962
    • Maluku, Ambonese – proclaimed an independent Republic of South Maluku
    • Sumatra and Sulawesi’s rebellion between 1955 and 1961.
  • The economy was in a disastrous.
  • Inexperienced government – unable to boost food production.
  • Illiterate, unskilled, and suffered from a death.
  • Inflation, smuggling
  • Government much needed foreign exchange
  • Plantations had been destroyed during the war.

 

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