- Around the end of the 13th century the kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara was established in the region of Tepian Batu or Kutai Lama.
- The first known ruler is Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti, who is thought to have ruled from 1300 to 1325.
- Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa, who ruled 1635–1650, was able to conquer the kingdom of Kutai Martadipura and merged the two realms thus Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura.
- In 1667 the Dutch V.O.C. attacked Makassar on the island of Sulawesi leading to the downfall of the Bugis (The ethnic group of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi,) Kingdom of Gowa, South Sulawesi.
Makassar South Sulawesi map
- Some of the Bugis under the leadership of Lamohang Daeng Mangkona or Pua Ado I immigrated to Kutai on neighbouring Borneo (Kalimantan) and the ruler of Kutai allowed them to settle in Kampung Melantai around the Karang Mumus River, now known as Kampung Selili.
- This settlement eventually developed into the modern town of Samarinda.
Location of Samarinda
- Islam took hold in the region since the 17th century (most of the Bugis were Muslims) and Aji Muhammad Idris, ruling 1732–1739, was the first ruler to have an Islamic name.
- After a civil war Aji Imbut, after finally becoming the ruler as Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin in 1780, moved the capital in 1782 from Pemarangan to Tepian Pandan.
- The name of the capital city eventually developed from Tangga Arung to its present form of Tenggarong.
Location of Tenggarong
- In 1844 the Dutch defeated the Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara, Aji Muhammad Salehudin, forcing him into exile, and took direct control of Kutai.
- The Japanese invaded the region in 1942 and acknowledged a “Kooti Kingdom”, that was a subject of the Tenno.
- In 1945 Kutai joined, along with its neighbours, into the East Kalimantan federation.
- In 1949 Kutai finally became part of the United Republic of Indonesia.